The Virginia rail, like other rails, is more often heard rather than seen. A rail often builds multiple nests around its incubation nest. The additional nests are used for hiding places and are sometimes called "dummy" nests.
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A surface that represents a break in the geologic record, with the rock unit immediately above it being considerably younger than the rock beneath. There are three major aspects to consider: (1) Time. An unconformity develops during a period of time in which no sediment is deposited. This concept equates deposition and time, and an unconformity represents unrecorded time. (2) Deposition. Any interruption of deposition, whether large or small in extent, is an unconformity. This aspect of unconformity pre-supposes a standard ‘scale’ of deposition which is complete. Major breaks in sedimentation can usually be demonstrated easily, but minor breaks may go unrecorded until highly detailed investigations are made. (3) Structure. Structurally, unconformity may be regarded as planar structures separating older rocks below from younger rocks above, representing the ‘break’ as defined in (1) and (2) above. A plane of unconformity may be a surface of weathering, EROSION or denudation, or a surface of non-deposition, or possibly some combination of these factors. It may be parallel to the upper strata, make an angle with the upper strata, or be irregular. Subsequent Earth movements may have folded or faulted it.
In referring to sediment grains, loose, separate, or unattached to one another.
A burn by a surface fire that can consume ground vegetation and "ladder" fuels.
erosion of material at the foot of a cliff or bank, e.g., a sea cliff, or river bank on the outside of a meander. Ultimately, the overhang collapses, and the process is repeated.
Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.
The trees and woody shrubs growing beneath the overstory in a stand of trees.
Feathers covering underside of base of tail. Synonym(s): crissum.
(1) A current below water surface flowing seaward; the receding water below the surface from waves breaking on a shelving beach. (2) Actually undertow is largely mythical. As the BACKWASH of each wave flows down the beach, a current is formed which flows seaward. However, it is a periodic phenomenon. The most common phenomena expressed as undertow are actually rip currents.
The slope of the sea bottom. See slope.
Underside of wing.
undisturbed water level
Same as still water level.
aged management - Actions that maintain a forest or stand of trees composed of intermingling trees that differ markedly in age. Cutting methods that develop and maintain uneven-aged stands are single-tree selection and group selection.
universal time (UT)
Same as Greenwich mean time (GMT).
Tree harvest that is not part of the allowable sale quantity (ASQ). It can include the removal of cull or dead material or non-commercial species. It also includes volume removed from non-suitable areas for research, to meet objectives other than timber production (such as wildlife habitat improvement), or to improve administrative sites (such as campgrounds.)
Forest land that is not managed for timber production. Reasons may be matters of policy, ecology, technology, silviculture, or economics
from the Atlantic Ocean
The direction to which the predominant longshore movement of beach material approaches.
upland game birds
nonmigratory birds found on terrestrial habitats. These include prairie chickens, wild turkey, quails, pheasants, grouse, partridges, and ptarmigans. Doves and American woodcock are considered separately for purposes of this publication.
Land above the mean high water line (shoreline) and subject to private ownership, as distinguished from tidelands, the ownership of which is prima facie in the state but also subject to divestment under state statutes. See tidelands.
Upper part of the bill.
upper mandibular tomia
Cutting edges of upper mandible.
Back, rump, hindneck, wings, and crown.
Feathers covering upperside of base of tail.
Upperside of wing.
The process by which water rises from a deeper to a shallower depth, usually as a result of offshore surface water flow. It is most prominent where persistent wind blows parallel to a coastline so that the resultant Ekman transport moves surface water away from the coast.
An estimate of proper range use. Forty to fifty percent of the annual growth is often used as a rule of thumb on ranges in good to excellent condition. It can also mean the amount of forage planned to be used to accelerate range rehabilitation.